Merdeka – Western Colonization

1511

Portugal makes first European colonial claim on Malaysia, capturing Malacca. In April 1511, Afonso de Albuquerque set sail from Goa to Malacca with a force of some 1200 men and seventeen or eighteen ships. The Viceroy made a number of demands—one of which was for permission to build a fortress as a Portuguese trading post near the city. The Sultan refused all the demands. Conflict was unavoidable, and after 40 days of fighting, Malacca fell to the Portuguese on 24 August.

1641

The Dutch East India Company with their local allies assaulted and finally wrested Malacca from the Portuguese in January 1641. This combined Dutch-Johor-Aceh efforts effectively destroyed the last bastion of Portuguese power, reducing their influence in the archipelago. The Dutch settled in the city as Dutch Malacca, however the Dutch had no intention to make Malacca their main base, and concentrated on building Batavia (today Jakarta) as their headquarters in the orient instead.

1700s-1800s

Now known as Malaya, its trading ports gain more economic clout as British trade with China expands. Mining of tin and gold brings influx of Arab, Indian and Chinese immigrants who soon control business. Britain establishes colonies and trading ports on Malay peninsula; Penang is leased to the British East India Company. At first, the British didn't put much effort into Malacca, and established themselves on the island Penang in 1786. Only until 1795 the British took over command of the Dutch in Malacca, who started focusing more on trade all around Indonesia.

1824-1826

Anglo-Dutch Treaty sets boundaries between British Malaya and the Netherlands East Indies, which is present-day Indonesia. The British Crown Colony (also referred to as the Straits Settlements) was established in 1826 and slowly but certain, the British increased their power over the rest of the peninsula. At first, it was primarily spices taken from the present Malaysia. But when in the early 19th century tin supplies were discovered, the trade shifted rapidly. The British first colonized the peninsula and after that, between 1840 an 1882, also annexated east-Malaysia (Sabah and Sarawak) into the British Crown Colony. In this period, the British also invited many Indian people to Malaysia, to fill up the shortage of workers.

Late 1800s to 1909

The Federated Malay States, in southern Malaya, was formed in 1895 after the British intervened in the fratricidal wars of the sultans. The British gained control over northern Malaya through an agreement made with Thailand in 1909 and merged all the territory under their control to form Malaya. Modern-day Kuala Lumpur is founded as a trading post for immigrant miners, and becomes capital of Federated Malay States in 1896. Profits pour in due to wartime demand for tin and rubber.

1910-1941

By 1910 the pattern of British rule in the Malay lands was established. The Straits Settlements were a Crown Colony, ruled by a governor under the supervision of the Colonial Office in London. Their population was about half Chinese, but all residents, regardless of race, were British subjects. The first four states to accept British residents, Perak, Selangor, Negeri Sembilan and Pahang, were termed the Federated Malay States: while technically independent, they were placed under a Resident-General in 1895, making them British colonies in all but name. The Unfederated Malay States (Johore, Kedah, Kelantan, Perlis and Terengganu) had a slightly larger degree of independence, although they were unable to resist the wishes of their British Residents for long.

Our Pride

The flag of Malaysia, also known as Jalur Gemilang in Malay ("Stripes of Glory"), is composed of a field of 14 alternating red and white stripes along the fly and a blue canton bearing a crescent and a 14-point star known as the Bintang Persekutuan (Federal Star). The 14 stripes, of equal width, represent the equal status in the federation of the 13 member states and the federal territories, while the 14 points of the star represent the unity between these entities. The crescent represents Islam, the country's state religion; the blue canton symbolizes the unity of the Malaysian people; the yellow of the star and crescent is the royal color of the Malay rulers

Negaraku (My Country) is the national anthem of Malaysia. It was selected as a national anthem at the time of the Federation of Malaya's independence from the UK in 1957. The tune was originally used as the regional anthem of Perak, which was adopted from a popular French melody titled "La Rosalie" composed by the lyricist Pierre-Jean de Béranger. Source

Negaraku,
Tanah tumpahnya darahku
Rakyat hidup
Bersatu dan maju
Rahmat Bahagia
Tuhan kurniakan
Raja kita
Selamat bertakhta
Rahmat Bahagia
Tuhan kurniakan
Raja kita
Selamat bertakhta

My motherland
The land where my blood has spilt
Where the people live
United and progressive
With God given
Blessings of happiness
May our King
Reign in peace
With God given
Blessings of happiness
May our King
Reign in peace

Whereas our country, MALAYSIA nurtures the ambitions of:

  • Achieving a more perfect unity amongst the whole of her society
  • Preserving a democratic way of life
  • Creating a just society where the prosperity of the country can be enjoyed together in a fair and equitable manner
  • Guaranteeing a liberal approach towards her rich and varied cultural traditions; and
  • Building a progressive society that will make use of science and modern technology.

We, Her People, pledge our united efforts to attain these ends guided by these principles:

BELIEF IN GOD
LOYALTY TO KING AND COUNTRY
THE SUPREMACY OF THE CONSTITUTION
THE RULE OF LAW
COURTESY AND MORALITY

Merdeka Theme

Sayangi MalaysiaKu : Malaysia Bersih (Love Malaysia : Clean Malaysia)

Logo

Malaysia is a country in Southeast Asia. The federal constitutional monarchy consists of 13 states and three federal territories, separated by the South China Sea into two similarly sized regions, Peninsular Malaysia and East Malaysia (Malaysian Borneo). Peninsular Malaysia shares a land and maritime border with Thailand and maritime borders with Singapore, Vietnam, and Indonesia. East Malaysia shares land and maritime borders with Brunei and Indonesia and a maritime border with the Philippines and Vietnam. Kuala Lumpur is the national capital and largest city while Putrajaya is the seat of federal government. With a population of over 30 million, Malaysia is the world's 44th most populous country. The southernmost point of continental Eurasia, Tanjung Piai, is in Malaysia. In the tropics, Malaysia is one of 17 mega diverse countries, with large numbers of endemic species. Source

The country is home to people of various national, ethnic and religious origins. Majority of the population, however, belong to several clearly defined ethnolinguistic groups within the country with their own distinct cultures and traditions: Malays, Orang Asli (aboriginal population), Malaysian Chinese (primarily Han Chinese), Malaysian Indians (primarily Tamils). Malays themselves are the source of the name Malaysia ("land of Malays") as they traditionally formed the majority during the British rule. The majority of the non-Malay and non-aboriginal population in modern Malaysia is made up of immigrants and their descendants. Following the initial period of Portuguese, Dutch and then significantly longer British colonization, different waves (or peaks) of immigration and settlement of non-aboriginal peoples took place over the course of nearly five centuries and continue today. Source

 

Themes

Check out the memorable logos and themes that have been created in conjunction with the Merdeka celebration since 1976. More

Merdeka Events

Don't miss out the Merdeka celebration at your local area, state or the big parade at National Merdeka level. Check the events date and hours! More

Celebration Gallery

Browse the selected colorful gallery of images  in conjunction with the Merdeka celebration around the nation. More

PSB Exhibition

Perpustakaan Sultanah Bahiyah UUM proudly present the Merdeka exhibition at the UUM Sintok Campus as a tribute to the celebration and historical moment. More

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